Founder Chancellor : Begum Sultan Jahan

H.H. Sultan Kaikhusrau Jahan Begum,
Ruler of Bhopal

Born: 9th July 1858, Princely state of Bhopal, India
Died: 12th May, 1930
Spouse:H.H. 'Ali Jah, Ihtisham ul-Mulk, Nasir ud-Daula, Nawab Ahmad 'Ali

Khan Bahadur of Muzaffar Nagar, Sultan Dulha Sahib, Nawab Consort of Bhopal
Father:General H.H. Nasir ud-Daula, Nawab Baqi Muhammad Khan
Mother:Sultan Shah Jahan Begum (29th July 1838- 16th June, 1901)

Ruler of Bhopal from 11th April 1845 to 30th April, 1860 &

2nd November 1868 to 16th June 1901)
Children:Nawab Hafiz Sir Muhammad Nasru'llah Khan Sahib Bahadur, KCSI
Al-Haj Mohsin ul-Mulk, Nawab Hafiz Muhammad Ubaidu'llah Khan

Sahib Bahadur, CSI
Al-Haj Nawabzada Hafiz Muhammad Hamidu'llah Khan

(Chancellor of AMU-Aligarh – 21st Sep. 1930 to 17th April 1935)
Sahabzadi Bilqis Jahan Begum
Sahabzadi Asif Jahan Begum

16th June 1901-29th April 926: Nawab Begum of Darul-Iqbal-i-Bhopal, Ruler of Bhopal
17th Dec.1920-12th May 1930:Founder Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh
The first Indian woman to become a chancellor of an Indian University
1914: President. All-India Muslim Ladies Conference
1918: Founder, All India Ladies Association


1st Jan 1910 :Knight Grand Commander (GCSI)
24th June, 1904: Knight Grand Commander (GCIE)
CI (1st Dec. 1911), GBE (27th Dec. 1917) Delhi Durbar gold medal (1903), Coronation medal (1911 with Durbar clasp), DGBStJ (17.3.1916),
20.8.1911: Order of Nobility (Nishan-i-Majidi) 1st class in brilliants of Turkey

Books Authored:
Bachoon Ki Parvarish
Gohar e Iqbal
Gule Khanda
Hayat e Shah Jahani (Persian)
Hayat e Shah Jahani (Urdu)
Rouzatur Riyaheen
The Story of a Pilgrimage to Hijaz
Hidayat uz-Zaujan
Sabil ul-Jinan
Tandurusti (Health)
Hidayat Timardari

H.H. Sikander Saulat, Iftikhar ul-Mulk, Nawab Sultan Kaikhusrau Jahan Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Darul-Iqbal-i-Bhopal, was born at Bhopal on 9th July 1858. She was eldest child of the family of H.H. Nawab Sultan Shah Jahan Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Dar ul-Iqbal-i-Bhopal, and General H.H. Nasir ud-Daula, Nawab Baqi Muhammad Khan Bahadur, Umrao Dulha, Nusrat Jang. Her younger sister, Sahibzadi Sulaiman Jahan Begum Sahiba was born at Bhopal on 26th November 1860, but died from smallpox on 8th June 1865. So Begum Kaikhusrau Sultan Jahan, popularly known as Begum Sultan Jahan was only surviving child and heir of Darul-Iqbal-i-Bhopal. As per the Islamic and royal traditions of Darul-Iqbal-i-Bhopal, she was privately educated at the place. Her maternal grandmother, Nawab Sikandar Begum Sahiba paid special attention on her education. Qualified teachers and instructors were appointed for Urdu, Persian, Arabic and English. She was trained in horse riding, shooting and archery. She also learned handicraft, traditional arts and Calligraphy. Special attention were paid for Islamic and Quranic studies. On 30th October 1868, Begum Sultan Jahan’s grandmother Nawab Sikandar Begum Sahiba, ruler of Bhopal died due to kidney failure and H.H. Nawab Sultan Shah Jahan Begum took over the rein of Bhopal. Young Sultan Jahan Begum became the Crown Princes of Bhopal. Her strict academic schedule got affected due to her engagements with state affairs being as crown princes but she managed to continue her academic pursuit. She continued to receive Tafseerul Quran lessons from Maulvi Jamaluddin Khan and Persian lessons from Maulvi Mohammad Ayub. In spite of her busy schedules, she never missed her English lessons. Her acceptance speech at coronation ceremony was remarkable and long lasting impression on the attendees.
Begum Sultan Jahan was married to H.H. 'Ali Jah, Ihtisham ul-Mulk, Nasir ud-Daula, Nawab Ahmad 'Ali Khan Bahadur, Sultan Dulha Sahib, Nawab Consort of Bhopal at Shaukat Mahal, Bhopal on 1st February 1874. Nawab Ahmad 'Ali Khan Bahadur was born in January 1854 at state of Jelallabad of Muzaffar Nagar. Allah blessed them with 5 children; Nawab Hafiz Sir Muhammad Nasru'llah Khan Sahib Bahadur, KCSI, Al-Haj Mohsin ul-Mulk, Nawab Hafiz Muhammad Ubaidu'llah Khan Sahib Bahadur, CSI, Al-Haj Nawabzada Hafiz Muhammad Hamidu'llah Khan, Sahabzadi Bilqis Jahan Begum and Sahabzadi Asif Jahan Begum.

On 16th June1901, H.H. Nawab Sultan Shah Jahan Begum Sahiba, ruler of Bhopal died and Nawab Sultan Kaikhusrau Jahan Begum, the only surviving child of Sultan Shah Jahan begum became the Ruler of Bhopal. The official Installation ceremony was held on 4th July, 1901 at the Sadar Manzil, Bhopal. On 4 July 1901, Sultan Jahan assumed the title of ruler of Bhopal at the mature age of 43 after serving 33 arduous, harrowing years under Shah Jahan as heir apparent. All three preceding Begums had mounted the masnad at a young age – Qudsia Jahan was 19 when she became regent of Bhopal, Sikandar Jahan was regent of Bhopal at 26, while Shah Jahan was titular ruler of Bhopal at the age of seven and full fledged Begum of Bhopal at 30. As she was proclaimed ruler of Bhopal, Sultan Jahan looked older then her 43 years. Immediately after Begum Shah Jahan’s death, the British moved quickly to announce her succession as ruler of Bhopal. The Investiture Durbar was held at Sadar Manzil of Bhopal, at which Mr. Wyndham represented Lord Curzon, the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, the first assistant to the resident. Soon after becoming the Ruler of Bhopal, begum Sultan Jahan lost her husband. Nawab Ahmad 'Ali Khan Bahadur died on 4th January 1902 in Bhopal. As Sultan Jahan took over the states administration, she found that the cupboard was bare. Shah Jahan and her henchmen had dissipated the finances to the extent that the state was heavily in debt and only 40,000 rupees were left in the treasury. A fighter by nature, Sultan Jahan resolved to put matters right, rolled up her sleeves and began the uphill task of rehabilitation and revival. For over a year Sultan Jahan built up her own team of upright and conscientious officials who helped her put the ship of state back on an even keel Sultan Jahan’s first task was to gain confidence of her rural subjects and helping Bhopal recover from Shah Jahan’s lax and divisive rule. Sultan Jahan’s visit to the outlying villages was not simply representational tours, but serious attempts at seeking solutions to agrarian problems. The atmosphere was all work and austerity, with long hours spent listening to the plaints of village folks. There was no shikar, polo playing or midnight revelry as in Shah Jahan’s days, but an ambiance of rigorous hard work for herself and her staff. She inducted her grown-up sons, Nasrullah and Obaidullah, into the process of governance and administration and even “little Hamid”, her eight-year-old third son, accompanied his mother to be given a taste of royal responsibility. She further advanced the emancipation of women and established a modern municipality in 1903. By 1911, King Edward VII of England had died and George V was to be crowned. Sultan Jahan was invited to attend the Coronation in London. Sultan Jahan left heir apparent Nasrullah in Bhopal to hold the fort while she took Obaidullah, his wife Shahryar Dulhan, Hamid and his child bride Maimoona Sultan with her on her journey to Europe. She attended the coronation of King George V in 1911 dressed in a burqa with her awards worn on the outside. During the trip, she visited Paris, a spa in Bad Nauenheim in Germany, spent a week in Gen√®ve and travelled by the Orient Express to Istanbul, where she met the sultan-emperor, Mehmet Reshad. She also visited Hungary, Italy and Egypt where she embarked on her return journey to a Bhopal struck by plague. Later that year she attended the Imperial Dunbar in Delhi. She introduced free compulsory primary education in 1918. She Established an Executive and Legislative Council in 1922. A great reformer, like her mother and grandmother, she reformed taxation, the army, police, the judiciary and jails, expanded agriculture, and constructed extensive irrigation and public works. She established an appointed state council and legislative assembly, and instigated elections for municipalities. However, her main legacy is public health, by pioneering widespread inoculation and vaccination program, improving sanitation, hygiene and the water supply. On 29th April 1926, while still away from Bhopal in London, Sultan Jahan informed the secretary of state for India, Lord Stamfordham that she was abdicating as Begum of Bhopal in favor of her son, Al-Haj Nawabzada Hafiz Muhammad Hamidu'llah Khan. A decision that stupefied the British ministers. There was another flurry of legal controversy in the Viceroy’s Secretariat questioning the Begum’s right to abdicate as ruler of Bhopal. The Begum refused to accept, and the British eventually accepted on 17th May 1926 accepting Hafiz Hamidullah Khan as the ruler of Bhopal. . After her abdication, she became an advocate of women’s right. The peaceful rule of Begums led to the rise of a unique mixed culture in Bhopal. The Hindus were given important administrative positions in the state. This led to communal peace and a cosmopolitan culture took its roots.

H.H. Begum Sultan Jahan died on 12th May 1930 at Qasr-e-Sultani Palace in Bhopal and buried near the grave of Pir Zia ud-din.

Association with Aligarh Movement:

The royal family of Bhopal was always supportive to Aligarh Movement. H.H. Begum Shah Jahan supported Scientific Society, donated a sum of 10,000 Rupees for M.A.O. College Jama Masjid construction. Begum Sultan Jahan was very much supportive to the vision and mission of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. She took over the rein of Bhopal after the death of Sir Syed, but always helped M.A.O. College with a great generosity. When Nawab Viqarul Mulk was Secretary of College, a better understanding was developed between M.A.O. College and Begum Sultan Jahan. In 1910, she enrolled her son, Hafiz Hamidullah Khan to M.A.O. College Aligarh. This represented an historic step for the Bhopal royal family, as Hafiz Hamidullah Khan was the first of its members to be given a formal university education. She and other members of the family donated a sum of 50000/- Rupees for College building fund. All India Muslim Educational Conference established by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was also receiving regular support from Begum Sultan Jahan. She visited Aligarh on 27th February, 1914 and laid the foundation stone of All India Muslim Educational Conference building. This building is now known as “Sultan Jahan Manzil”. When H.H. Agha Khan stopped his annual financial help to the College, H.H. Begum Sultan Jahan persuaded him to continue his support for the College. H.H. Agha Khan was convinced and restarted his annual generous donation to College Fund. In annual session of Muslim Educational Conference in 1910, the idea of Muslim University was made public and H.H. Agha Khan and Nawab Viqarul Mulk visited H.H. Begum Sultan Jahan in Allahabad. She immediately donated 100,000/- (One Lakh Rupees for the cause of Muslim University). She also promised to donate money for electricity and electrical appliance for the College. She extended her full support for Muslim University and promised to talk to other princely states, landlord and wealth people and specially to H.H. Nizam of Hyderabad for their support for Muslim University. When the fund raising for Muslim University was started, Bhopal was one of the Provincial Center and Begum Sultan Jahan took a lead role to raise funds. She made encouraging speeches at different places including Price of Wales Ladies Club. She accepted the plaque of Honor from The MAO College Trustees and visited Aligarh to inaugurate Sultan Jahan Building in 1915. She had an open discussion with Trustees and MAO College staff. She gave invaluable advises to the students, staff and Trustees. She also fully financed Allama Shibli Nomani’s Seeratun-Nabi publication. Even after the death of Allama Shibli Nomani, H.H. Begum Sultan Jahan supported Allama Shibli’s designated heir and disciple Maulana Syed Sulaiman Nadvi.

H.H. Begum Sultan Jahan paid attention to women education and supported Mohammad Girls School of Aligarh started by Sheikh Abdullah (Papa Min). The management of Girls school was looking for an acceptable curriculum but due to lack of funds were a major roadblock. H.H. Begum Sultan Jahan paid special attention and donated generously to develop a proper curriculum for women education. She took personal interest and developed an outline of curriculum and presented it in her Presidential address of the women education session of the annual Muslim Educational Conference on 5th December 1911. She proposed the idea of Home science in the curricula of women education to make it more attractive for majority of the community. In her visit to Aligarh in 1915, she inaugurated the Girls School building laid the foundation stone for girl’s hostel.

On December 17th, the Aligarh Muslim University came into being. According to the act (Section III) the first Chancellor, the first Pro-Chancellor and the first Vice-Chancellor were to be appointed by the Governor General of India. In an Annexure the act gave a list of 124 Foundation members of the First AMU Court. The Governor General of India, Lord Chelmsford appointed H.H. Mohammad Ali Mohammad, Raja Mahmudabad as its first Vice- Chancellor. Her Highness Sultan Jahan Begum of Bhopal and H.H. Sir Agha Khan were respectively appointed as Chancellor and Pro-Chancellor of the Aligarh Muslim University. The inaugural ceremony of University took place on the 17th December, 1920.

In spite of her busy schedule Begum Sultan Jahan used to participate in University Function. She presided over the First Convocation of newly established Aligarh Muslim University on 28th December, 1922. In her presidential address, Begum Sultan Jahan said;
“We meet today to celebrate the First Convocation of our University, the fruit of fifty years of our national exertion and aspirations. To the pioneer of this movement, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Mohsinul Mulk and Viqarul Mulk, who first saw the vision of a common and united centre of Muslim culture, and who devoted their lives to its realization, the nation owes a great debt of gratitude. Great would have been their happiness to see their efforts crowned with success. With this noble system of education at the back, The University will rear the genius of men like, Averroes and Avicenna (Ibn Sina), Sheikh Saadi, Al-Ghazali, Ibne Musa, Abu Maashar-i-Falaki, Shah Waliullah, Shah Abdul Azeez, Haali and Shibli, who will rekindle the spark of Islamic civilization and usher in a brighter and more glorious era in the annals of Islam.”

Begum Sultan Jahan also addressed the annual convocation of 1925. She extended her support and served as Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University till her last breath. After her sad demise on 12th May 1930, her son, ruler of Bhopal and M.A.O. College alumnus, Nawab Hafiz Hamidullah Khan was elected as Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University.

Founder Vice-Chancellor: Mohammad Ali Mohammad, Raja Mahmudabad

H.H. Sir Mohammad Ali Mohammad,

Khan Bahadur, Raja Mahmudabad

Father’s Name: Amirud-Daulah Raja Amir Hasan Khan
Grandfather: Raja Nawab Ali Khan (Fought in the first war of independence in 1857).
Date of birth: June 4th, 1878, Mahmudabad, Sitapur (UP)-India
Died: March 23, 1931
Children: 2 daughters, 2 sons. Elder son Raja Amir Ahmad Khan became Raja Mahmudabad after the death of his father Sir Muhammad Ali Mohammad Khan.

Raja Mahmudabad – 28th June 1903 to December, 1931.
Trustee MAO College: 1906-1920
Member: UP legislative Council 1904-1909
Member: Council of Governor General of India 1907-1920
Founder: Lucknow University (UP): 1920
Home Minister: 1920-26 First Indian Member of The Administrative Council of
Sir Spencer Harcourt Butler, Governor of United Province.

President: Sessions of the All India Muslim League in 1917, 1918 and 1928.
Member Council of State: 1927, Elected unopposed as Member of Council of States.
Host: Muslim Educational Conference: 1904 Lucknow
President: Muslim Educational Conference: 1909 Rangoon

Founding Vice-Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University:
17th December 1920 to 28th February, 1923.

His Highness, Sir Mohammad Ali Mohammad Khan of Mahmudabad, popularly known as Raja Mahmudabad was born on 4th June, 1878 in the royal estate of Mahmudabad, in Sitapur (United Province) India. After completing his primary education of Arabic, Persian and Urdu in Mahmudabad, he joined English School for modern education. His father, Amirud-Daulah Raja Amir Hasan Khan died on 28th June, 1903 and the young Mohammad Ali Mohammad Khan became the Raja of Mahmudabad. The official coronation was held on 1st January 1905 in the presence of Governor of United Provence. The estate of Mahmudabad had its rule over a large part of Barabanki, Sitapur, Balrampur and Nanparah. Raja Mahmudabad was very humble, kind, generous and nationalist person. His hospitality was known in the nation. He was a poet and extensively wrote “Marsia” with pen name of “Mohib”. He spent his life and wealth for community and nation building. On 1st January, 1920, Montego-Chelmsford Report recommendations were implemented and a friend of Raja Mahmudabad, Sir Spencer Harcourt Butler was appointed as Governor of UP. Sir Harcourt Butler appointed Raja Mahmudabad as Home Minister in his Administrative Council. Raja sahib was first Indian to be a member of Sir Butler’s administrative council. He served in the council till 1926. He played a key role in Indian freedom struggle. When Indian national Congress leaders, including Motilal Nehru was jailed in Lucknow, Raja sahib helped in their release. He played a key role to make Lucknow as the capital of UP and foundation of Lucknow University. He became Trustee of MAO College in 1906. He was also actively involved in the campaign for a Muslim University. On 17th December, when M.A.O. College became Aligarh Muslim University, Raja Mahmudabad was appointed as its founding Vice-Chancellor. For his passion for the community services, he was honored with K.C.S.I. and became Sir Mohammad Ali Mohammad Khan Bahadur.

Raja Mahmudabad died on March 23rd, 1931. His eldest son, Raja Amir Ahmed Khan, who was born on November 5, 1914, took over the rein of Mahmudabad at a very young age. Raja Amir Ahmed Khan also became popular as 'Raja Sahib of Mahmudabad', was a gifted disciple and trusted associate of Quaid- e-Azam at a very early age.

Founder of Lucknow University:
The idea of starting a University at Lucknow was first mooted by Raja Sir Mohammad Ali Mohammad Khan, Khan Bahadur, K.C.I.E. of Mahmudabad, who contributed an article to the columns of "The Pioneer'' urging the foundation of a University at Lucknow. A little later Sir Harcourt Butler, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E, was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the United Provinces, and his well-known interest in all matters under his jurisdiction, specially in matters educational, gave fresh life and vigour to the proposal. The first step to bring the University into being was taken when a General Committee of educationists and persons interested in university education appointed for the purpose, met in conference at Government House, Lucknow, on November, 10, 1919. At this meeting Sir Harcourt Butler, who was in the chair, outlined the proposed scheme for the new university. A discussion followed, and it was resolved that Lucknow University should be a Unitary, Teaching, and Residential University of the kind recommended by the Calcutta University Mission, 1919, and should consist of Faculties of Arts, including Oriental Studies, Science, Medicine, Law, etc. A number of other resolutions was also passed and six sub-committees were formed, five of them to consider questions connected with the University and one to consider the arrangements for providing Intermediate Education. These sub-committees met during the months of November and December, 1919, and January, 1920; and the reports of their meetings were laid before a second Conference of the General Committee at Lucknow on January 26, 1920; their proceedings were considered and discussed, and the reports of five of the sub-committees were, subject to certain amendments, confirmed. The question of incorporation of the Medical College in the University, however, was for the time being left open for expression of opinion. At the close of the Conference donations of one lakh each from the Raja of Mahmudabad and Jahangirabad were announced.
The resolutions of the first Conference together with the recommendations of the sub-committees as confirmed at the second Conference were laid before a meeting of the Allahabad University on March 12, 1920, and it was decided to appoint a sub-committee to consider them and report to the Senate. The report of the sub-committee was considered at an extraordinary meeting of the Senate on August 7, 1920, at which the Chancellor presided, and the scheme was generally approved. In the meantime the difficulty of The Court of the University was constituted in March, 1921, and the first meeting of the Court was held on March 21, 1921, at which the Chancellor presided. The other University authorities such as the Executive Council, the Academic Council, and Faculties came into existence in August and September, 1921. Other Committees and Boards, both statutory and otherwise, were constituted in course of time. On July 17, 1921, the University undertook teaching -- both formal and informal. Teaching in the Faculties of Arts, Science, Commerce, and Law were being done in the Canning College and teaching in the Faculty of Medicine in the King George's Medical College and Hospital. The Canning College was handed over to the University on July 1, 1922, although previous to this date the buildings, equipment, staff, etc., belonging to the Canning College had been ungrudgingly placed at the disposal of the University for the purposes of teaching and residence. The King George's Medical College and the King George's Hospital were transferred by the Government to the University on the March 1, 1921. The following three Colleges provided the nucleus for the establishment of the University:
The King George's Medical College. (Now Known as King George's Medical University)
The Canning College.
The Isabella Thoburn College.
This was a rich inheritance for the new-born University in 1920, both materially and intellectually, and it brought with it also the richest of all heritages "a fine tradition of some fifty-five years in the case of the Canning College and some nine years in the case of the King George's Medical College." To this the generous taluqdars of Oudh added an endowment of nearly thirty lakhs. The support from Sir Harcourt Butler's Government was strong and hearty. Since then the Government of the United Provinces has annually contributed a substantial share towards the maintenance of the University.

Association with Aligarh Movement:

Raja Mahmudabad, H.H. Mohammad Ali Mohammad, Khan Bahadur, was always keen in helping the community and specially Muslims of India. He was a strong believer of Sir Syed’s vision and follower of Aligarh Movement. He was convinced that educational development of Muslims of India will lead to a strong community and nation. Due to his passion for educational upliftment of Indian Muslims, he fully financed the 1904 session of Muslim Educational conference held in Lucknow under the chairmanship of Nawab Mohsinul Mulk. He also donated fifty thousand rupees (Rs.50,000/-) for scientific educational development at Mohammedan Anglo Oriental (MAO) College of Aligarh. In 1906, he was appointed as one of the trustee of MAO College Management Committee. In 1906, he joined a deputation which waited on Lord Minto, Governor General of India, under the leadership of H.H. Sir Agha Khan to demand for the religious and constitutional rights for Muslims of India. His strong commitment for the educational development of Indian Muslims led him to preside the 1909 session of Muslim Educational Conference in Rangoon at a very young age of 31 years. Raja sahib always supported the campaign for the Muslim University.

On December 17th, the Aligarh Muslim University came into being. According to the act (Section III) the first Chancellor, the first Pro-Chancellor and the first Vice-Chancellor were to be appointed by the Governor General of India. In an Annexure the act gave a list of 124 Foundation members of the First AMU Court. The Governor General of India, Lord Chelmsford appointed H.H. Mohammad Ali Mohammad, Raja Mahmudabad as its first Vice- Chancellor. Her Highness Sultan Jahan Begum of Bhopal and H.H. Sir Agha Khan were respectively appointed as Chancellor and Pro-Chancellor of the Aligarh Muslim University. The inaugural ceremony of University took place on the 17th December, 1920.

On 17th December, 1920 Raja Mahmudabad joined as Founding Vice-Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University and immediately gave a generous donation of One Lakh rupees to College fund. The first meeting of University Court was held on 21st march, 1921 under the leadership of Raja sahib and Nawab Syed Mohammad Ali, the Honorary Secretary of M.A.O. College, was elected Honorary Treasurer, Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad, Principal of M.A.O. College, was made Pro-Vice Chancellor. Syed Sajjad Hyder, a member of the Court, was appointed Registrar and Mr. Abul Hasan, who had been Assistant Secretary of the College, was appointed Personal Assistant to the Vice-Chancellor. As the University ordinances had not yet been framed, the Government of India invested the Vice-Chancellor with extraordinary powers to deal with all matters of detail. Vice-Chancellor, Raja Mahmudabad put extra efforts to give a shape to the newly established University. To avoid delay and dislocation, he appointed Nawab Syed Mohammad Ali as his delegate to finish the works which he was not able to complete as Honorary Secretary. In Raja sahib’s leadership during 1922-23 the Executive regulations were framed. On the recommendation of Calcutta University Commission, a separate Intermediate College was started comprising of class IX, X, XI and XII and Major E. W. Dann was appointed its Principal. Later Prof. Abdul Majeed Quraishi was appointed as its Principal and Major Dann was requested to establish department of Geography.

The period of Raja Mahmudabad as Vice-Chancellor was a tough time. Due to the Non-Cooperation Movement, the student strength fell to 512 from 838. Vigorous efforts had therefore to be made to retrieve the position of institution. Administrative reorganization, need for coordination and financial difficulties were major issues to be addressed immediately. Notwithstanding the financial and other limitations, Raja sahib thus visualized its development programme. “A Training College for teachers is a crying necessity. A Technological institution is no less urgently needed. Provision for the study of the sciences of medicine and surgery will have sooner or later to be made.” Raja sahib did some significant addition to the staff of the University. Dr. D.N. Mallick, professor of Presidency College Calcutta joined AMU as Professor of Physics and Chemistry. Mr. Mohammad Habib, who obtained Honors from the University of Oxford was appointed as professor of history. Mr. N.K. Mukerji was appointed principal of the Training College. Raja sahib’s generous contribution of one lakh rupees made possible to purchase 193 bighas of land for the expansion of University. During his tenure as VC, a lot of constructions were done e.g. Completion of Clock tower, Osmania Hostel, School Staff Quarters, Enclosure Wall round Minto Circle, Completion of the half western wing of Osmania Hostel and Intermediate College lecture Rooms.

The Vice-Chancellor, Raja Mahmudabad resigned with effect from March 1, 1923 due to pressure of his official duties as Home Minister in U.P. Government. Even after resigning from AMU as its Vice-Chancellor, his association with the University was never diminished. Aligarh Muslim University honored one of his great mentors by naming a hostel after him. Mahmudabad Hostel is part of Sir Shah Sulaiman Hall

Principal MAO College : William A.J. Archbold

William A.J. Archbold

Born: 1865 - England
Died: 1929 - England

Principal of MAO College: 16th October, 1905 to 31st Oct, 1909

Founder Secretary: Appointment Association, University of Cambridge

Secretary: Board of Indian Civil Services Studies

Twentieth-Century Essays & Addresses
Outlines of Indian Constitutional History (British Period)
Bengal haggis; the lighter side of Indian life

The romantic movement in English literature; a series of illustrative passages arranged with an introduction and brief biographies
Essays on teaching of history
The Somerset Religious Houses. Prince Consort Dissertation, 1890
Editor: Dictionary of National Biography.

William A. J. Archbold was born in England in 1865. He completed his graduation in Law in 1887. After completing his Law degree, he received WHEWELL SCHOLARSHIP in 1888 and started working as editor for Dictionary of National Biography. He established Appointment Association in University of Cambridge and served as its founding Secretary for 3 years.

In 1905 when Prof. Theodore Morrison resigned from the position of Principal MAO College, Mr. Archbold was working University of Cambridge and writing a book on French History for Cambridge University Press. MAO College made an offer to Mr. Archbold for principal MAO College which he accepted. A delegation of MAO College Old Boys comprising Shaikh Abdullah, Barrister Rafiuddin, Syed Abid Hussain and Sahebzada Aftab Ahmad Khan went to Bombay to receive him. Mr. Archbold was known as an able administrator before his joining as Principal of MAO College.

Mr. Archbold was well aware of his responsibilities as MAO College Principal. AT one occasion of dinner he said; “No one would succeed in the work, who did not have sympathy with the history, traditions, and aspirations of the MAO College.”

In the early 20th century i.e. in May 1906, the MAO College Students' Union had passed a resolution for Hindu-Muslim cooperation to fight against British imperialism. Mr. Archbold, Principal, Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College, therefore in August 1906 had tried to ensure the 'aloofness of the students from political agitation'. But the national and international development had created such a context that forced MAO College to produce many leaders, who asserted against the British imperialism and had joined the national movement of agitational politics which bore many fruits, including few Head of States

Mr. Archbold played a notable role in organizing Muslims Deputation which waited on the Viceroy, Lord Minto at Shimla, 1st Oct. 1906. The 1906 delegation to the viceroy was an announcement by John Morley, the secretary of state for India that his government proposed to introduce constitutional reforms in India. When Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Secretary MAO College Board of Trustees, heard about it, he wrote to Mr. Archbold, Principal of MAO College, who was then vacationing at Shimla. In his letter, Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk emphasized the importance of the occasion and asked Archbold to inquire whether Lord Minto, would receive a delegation of Indian Muslims, who wished to put before him their views about the projected constitutional reforms. The viceroy agreed. That initiative, as Bimal Prasad has emphasized (and documented), came entirely from Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk; not even from Archbold, let alone the British.

Mohammad Ali's phrase `command performance' was baseless and mischievous. When Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk got the green light from Shimla, a Memorial was prepared and discussed with some Muslim leaders at Lucknow. The big issue of the day that concerned both the Viceroy and the Muslims of the new province of East Bengal and Assam was the powerful ongoing agitation to annul the Partition of Bengal. Nawab Salimullah of Dacca and Nawab Ali Choudhury insisted at Lucknow that the Memorial should ask for an assurance that the Partition would not be annulled. But Aligarh Movement Leaders was not interested in that issue, which was not even mentioned in the Memorial. Nawab Salimullah of Dacca, therefore, refused to join the delegation although Nawab Ali Choudhury participated in the delegation.The viceroy too appears to have been disappointed that the Bengal Partition issue was not included in the Memorial. Lord Minto took it up on his own bat. In his reply, he reminded "The Mahomedan community of Eastern Bengal and Assam [that they] can rely as firmly as ever on British justice and fair-play." The delegation had asked for separate electorates and a fairer quota of representation in the viceroy's council, his executive council, in provincial councils and on senates and syndicates of the Indian Universities. They had reiterated the demand for a Muslim University. They sought a Muslim quota in the government service and the appointment of Muslim judges on the Bench. These were all predictable demands of the Muslim Salariat and professionals. In response, Lord Minto "promised … nothing, except sympathy.”So much for the `command performance'! Even the memorandum presented by them to Lord Minto had been carefully drafted, agreed upon and settled in advance between Mr. Archbold, the Principal of Muhammadan Anglo Oriental College and Dunlop Smith, the Private Secretary to the Viceroy. The British Government in India had taken advance action to give the widest publicity to this whole affair in the British Press in London, how India was not one nation, how it was not suited for democratic institutions, how Muslims were standing by the Empire and how Muslim patriotism and statesmanship had pricked the bubble of the treasonable Bengal Hindu agitators.

From the time of Sir Syed, European staff of MAO College were very powerful and during Nawab Mohsinul Mulk’s Secretaryship, they became even more stronger, specially Principal of MAO College were acting way beyond there authority due to their closeness with British Empire in India. After the death of Nawab Mohsinul Mulk, Nawab Viqarul Mulk was elected unanimously Secretary by the Board of Trustees of MAO College and took over charge in January 1908 at the age of 67. He had sharp differences with the European staff of College but Sir Syed and Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk believed in Anglo Muslim alliance. He, therefore, tried to put the necessary checks on the unquestionable authority of the Principal, which led to a serious clash between him and the European staff resulting in the resignation of Principal Archbold. The matter became so serious that it went to the level of Lt. Governor. However, Viqarul Mulk did not yield on the question of autonomy of the Institution. From a political point of view, his secretaryship was hard and stormy but he worked with courage.

After resigning from MAO College Aligarh in 1909, Principal Archbold served as Principal of Govt. College Dacca and then Muir Central College Allahabad.

Principal MAO College: Theodore Morrison

Theodore Morrison
Born: 1863, England
Died: February, 1936 England
Father’s Name:
Professor of English at MAO College: 1889 to 1899
Principal of MAO College: 29th October, 1899 to 1st March, 1905)
Founder Secretary Old Boys Association: 1890-1899
Finance Secretary MAO College
Visitor: MAO College
President Muslim Educational Conference
Member-Secretary of Secretary of State’s Council: 1906-1916
Books: The Industrial Organization of an Indian Province

Prof. Theodore Morrison, a graduate of University of Cambridge, founder of Proctorial System of MAO College, founder Secretary of Old Boys Association, guardian and guide of Sir Ross Masood and Principal of M.A.O. College was born in 1863 in England. After completing his education from University of Cambridge, he joined department of education. He was appointed as educational advisor to young rulers of Chattarpur (Bundel-Khand) and Charkhari (Hamirpur) and moved to India.

Association with MAO College and Aligarh Movement:

In the year of 1889, he was appointed as a Professor of English at MAO College. He was very kind and full of love for his students. At the same time he was much disciplined and never tolerated any indiscipline in college campus. He served as a professor in college till 1999. He served almost 10 years as a Professor of English at MAO College. He was having great respect for Sir Syed and Sir Syed also loved him. Prof. Morrison was very popular among the students. In 1999 he went to England for vacation and resigned from his teaching job of MAO College. This was a big loss for MAO College. On 2nd September, 1899 Principal Theodore Beck died in Shimla and MAO College offered the job of Principal to Prof. Theodore Morrison which he accepted and joined the new job on 29th October 1899.

The 5 year tenure of Prof. Morrison as MAO College Principal was among distinctive period of MAO College. He paid much attention to the educational upliftment of MAO College. He paid special attention to the discipline of MAO College and established Proctorial System at MAO College. Hostel life of MAO College became disciplined and peaceful. He took keen interests in discipline and hygiene of student’s community. The college discipline was in good shape during his tenure as Principal. He was very affectionate to his students but never compromised on discipline issues. He established Proctorial system in the college and appointed Mir Wilayat Hussain as Proctor. He enforced student’s 24-hour time table. He equally enforced discipline among his staff and never tolerated indiscipline in their teachings and schedules. His disciplined approach paid and the college results were improved and student strength started growing. In 1899 when he joined as principal, student strength were 465 but 1903 it became 713. At the same time the performance of the students were also on the rise. From 1900 to 1904, the rate of success in B.A. examinations was between 71% and 79%. Principal Morrison paid attention to other activities of students and promoted The Siddons’ Club. To improve Arabic conversation and communication, he established “Lahjatul-Adab”. He also established “Anjuman Urdu-e-Moalla” to promote writing and oratory skills among college students.

Principal Morrison also paid attention to the religious studies. He created a position of Dean of Theology. He promoted the Darse-Quran program which used to be given by Allama Shibli in the Strachey Hall and asked Nazim-e-Diniyat, Maulana Abdullah Ansari to continue. He made Namaaz (Salat) compulsory for Muslim students and asked Prayer Monitors to keep record of the students coming for prayers. He also requested staff and member of Trustees present in College to follow the same to set an example. Principal Morrison also paid attention towards sports. He had a keen interest in riding so paid key role to establish The MAO College Riding Club in 1893. Due to his interest in riding, he was also known as “Sipaahi Morrison”.

Principal Morrison was a big advocate of teacher taught relationship and promoted the relationship event if the student or staff member is no more in the College. He also started an Employment Bureau to help the students to get a job. He used to keep student records with his personal remarks so that upon the request of the government he can furnish the record to help the students. H e always used his influence t help MAO College students for a better placement in the jobs.

Principal Morrison was also appointed as Finance Secretary of MAO College. He helped a lot to improve the financial condition of the college. He started new techniques so receive donations for College. He was himself a big financial contributor for the college. He kept a clean financial records allowed regular audit for a better financial management. He tried to control the college expenses as per its budget. But at the same time he never ignored the well being of College staff. He gave proper increment in the pay and grades to the college staff. Even being as a European, he never did any kind of discrimination among his European and Non-European staff. He was also elected as President of Muhammadan Educational Conference in December, 1904 at Aligarh. In 1905 he took early retirement from MAO College and moved back to England. Even then he was a part of Aligarh Movement and always took keen interest in helping MAO College and Aligarh Movement. He made several visit to MAO College from England and proved his belief of teacher taught relationship. For his contributions and key role and active participation in Aligarh Movement, MAO College board of Trustees elected him as a Visitor MAO College.

After 1920, when MAO College became Aligarh Muslim University, Principal Morrison was honored by naming one of the hostel and road as “Morrison Court” and “Morrison Road” respectively.

Principal MAO College : Theodore Beck

Theodore beck
Born: 1859, England
Died: 2nd September 1899: Shimla (Buried at Shimla)
Father’s Name: Joseph Beck
Principal of MAO College: 28th January 1884 to 2nd September, 1899)
Founder Assistant Secretary of Muslims Education Conference: 1886-1899
Founder Honorary Registrar of MAO College: 29th March 1898-1899

In the year of 1859, Theodore Beck was born in the family of a poor businessman Mr. Joseph Beck. Mr. Joseph Beck was a running a small business of Optical, telescope and photographic equipments. With his hard work and sincere efforts, Theodore Beck joined Cambridge University where he met Syed Mahmood and became his close friend.

Association with MAO College and Aligarh Movement:

In May 1883, Hennery George Impey Siddons, founder principal of MAO College resigned from Principalship of MAO College. Sir Syed wrote a letter to Syed Mahmood in England and authorized him to find a suitable person for English and Philosophy who can also be appointed as Principal of MAO College as and when if needed. Syed Mahmood was on a personal trip to England. He contacted his old friend of Cambridge, Theodore Beck and offered him the position of English and Philosophy Professor and persuaded him to accept the position and move to India. Theodore Beck had just finished his education from Cambridge University and was just 24 years old. But he accepted the challenge and moved to India and joined the MAO College as a Professor of English and Philosophy and also assumed the office of Principal of MAO College on 28th January, 1884.
He could have never imagined that his career will start as MAO College Principal at the age of 24 and will end his with his last breath at the age of 40 as Principal of MAO College and will become the longest serving Principal of MAO College and champion of Muslims education in India. When he joined MAO College at the age of 24 years, some of his students at MAO College were older than him. He was a soft spoken, humble and very cooperative young man. Very soon became very popular among the students. His abilities and interests in College administration made him indispensable for Sir Syed and MAO College. His attitude towards students made him popular among the students. He used to do evening walk with senior students, visit dining halls to have meals with students and do some formal chat in an informal way. He used to make sure to visit those students who are sick and spend sometime with them so that they can not miss their families at the tough time. He used to help needy students from his pocket. He was a very hard working teacher also. At one point of time due to lack of staff members he taught four subjects so that students can not suffer due to lack adequate staff strength. His friendly as well as disciplined attitude made him insensible for Aligarh Movement and he was associated Aligarh Movement till his last breath.

Sir Syed was a big admirer of Theodore Beck’s administrative abilities and commitment for Aligarh Movement. In 1886 when Sir Syed started Muslim Educational Conference and became Founder Secretary of Muslim Educational Conference, he appointed Principal Beck as Assistant Secretary of Muslims Educational Conference. Principal Beck promoted the idea to have to have a debating club for students. The idea was originally put forward by his predecessor, Principal H.G.I. Siddon. Principal Beck named the debating club as SIDDON’s CLUB to honor The Founding Principal of MAO College. It was Siddon’s Club contribution that MAO College and Aligarh Movement have prolific orator and debators like, Sahebzada Aftab Ahmad Khan, Maulana Shaukat Ali, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan and Sarfaraz Hussain. He also started the famous Riding Club

Sir Syed’s political ideology was to distance himself and Muslims of India from active politics and never have confrontation viewpoints with the British rule. He was convinced that Muslims of India can not bear the burden of another mutiny. Principal beck was an ardent supporter of Sir Syed’ political thoughts and always promoted Sir Syed’s political thought to help Muslims of India to uplift them on educational front to compete with others. There is a common mis-conception that Sir Syed’s political vies were inspired by Principal Beck. This concept does not have strong roots as Sir had already expressed his political views even before starting The MAO College and he never deviated from his political ideology.

Theodore Beck & Syed Mahmood:
After the death of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan on 27th March 1898, Syed Mahmood became Secretary to The Trustees of MAO College. On 29th March 1898, Syed Mahmood appointed Principal Beck as Honorary Registrar of MAO College. This appointment leads some crises among the trustees of MAO College and they thought Syed Mahmood is handing over the College to British rule. But Syed Mahmood was firm in his decision and his decision was based on the efficiency and ability of Principal Beck. When Syed Mahmood had some strong differences with The Trustees of MAO College Management, Principal Beck tried to pacify Syed Mahmood and advised him to bring the Trustees closer to him.

Theodore Beck’s Death:
During the summer of 1899, Principal Beck was not feeling well and went to Shimla for his treatment. His health started detoriating. He had a surgery for his lever but never recovered from the problem and on 2nd September, 1899 the die-hard fan of Sir Syed and Aligarh Movement took his last breath in Shimla.

Founding Principal MAO College : H.G.I. Siddons

Henry George Impey Siddons
Born: 1851, Died: After 1931 Wales (UK)
Father: Capt William Young Siddons (1815-1851)
Mother: Emma Frederica Louisa Grant
Founding Principal of MAO College: 23rd June 1875: 28th January 1884
(Joined the office on 28th June 1875)

Henry George Impey Siddons was born in the same year 1851 when his father died. He was a great grandson of Sarah Siddons (July 5, 1755June 8, 1831), a British actress, the best-known tragedienne of the 18th century. His father Capt. William Young Siddons (1815-1851) was a military officer posted in India.

Henry George Impey Siddons, an Oxford graduate was appointed as founding Head Master of Madarsatul Uloom (later became MAO College) on 23rd June 1875. He assumed the charges of his office on 28th June 1875. After 2 years, Madarsatul Uloom became Mohammadan Anglo Oriental (MAO) College. Foundation stone of the college was laid be Lord Edward Robert Lytton, Governor General of India on January, 8th 1877. Mr. H.H.I. Siddons took over as MAO College’s Founding Principal. He was an able administer and educationist and took keen interest in the development of College.

Mr. H.G.I. Siddons started a debating club for students to promote debating skills among the students. Later on the students debating club was renamed to honor him and is known as Siddons Club. In 1883 he tendered his resignation and laid down the charges of his office on 28th January 1884. After living Aligarh, he joined Colvin Taluqdars School in Oudh started by Sir Auckland Colvin (1838-1908), Lieutenant Governor of the North West Provinces and Chief Commissioner of Oudh.

Sir Thomas Walker Arnold

Sir Thomas Walker Arnold

Born : 19th April 1864, London (England)
Died : 9th June 1930, London (England)
Wife : Celia Mary Hickson (Married in 1892)

Professor M.A.O. College : 1888-1898
Founding Keeper (Secretary) Duty Society AMU Aligarh
Founding President of Anjuman Taraqqi Urdu
Teacher, Student and friend of Allama Shibli Nomani
Famous students : Sir Allama Mohammad Iqbal, Syed Sulaiman Nadvi

i) The Legacy of Islam
ii) The Spread of Islam in the World: A History of Peaceful Preaching.
iii) The Caliphate iv) A literary History of the Arabs.
v) Paintings in Islam

Wearing turban, churidaar payjamaa, Angarkha and with a polite voice asking MAO college student to go for prayers and doing the headcount at mosque gate was a routine extra activities of a british by birth, a philosphy professor by profession, an orientalist by his pen, and one of the most popular eauropean staff member of MAO College and a true aligarian by his heart. This is a brief introduction of Prof. Sir Thomas Walker Arnold alias Maulana Arnold.
Prof. Thomas Walker Arnold was born on
19 April 1864 and educated at the City of London School. He entered Magdalene College, Cambridge University in 1883. On the recommendation of Mr. Theodore Beck, Mr. Arnold was offered a professorship in philosphy at MAO college, which he accepted whole heartedly. From 1888 he worked as a Professor of Philosphy at the MAO College, Aligarh. In 1898, he accepted a post as Professor of Philosophy and Principle at the Government College, Lahore and later became Dean of the Oriental Faculty at Punjab University. From 1904 to 1909 he was on the staff of the India Office as Assistant Librarian. In 1909 he was appointed Educational Adviser to Indian students in Britain. From 1917 to 1920 he acted as Adviser to the Secretary of State for India. He was Professor of Arabic and Islamic Studies at the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, 1921-1930.
But of all Arnold's works, Painting in Islam is of the greatest value to the student of Muslim, and particularly Persian, painting. It set a new standard of scholarship in the subject, for the author's long apprenticeship in Arabic and Persian gave him free access to the original sources; his deep interest in the religion and culture of Islam enabled him to see Islamic painting in its true setting and proportion. At the same time his humanity makes the book an eminently readable account of a somewhat abstruse subject. He went to previously untapped sources for many of his illustrations and examples—the Bodleian Library, the Royal Asiatic Society, and the India Office Library (where he had been Assistant Librarian from 1904 to 1909)—and thus widened the field of research for his successors. In his preface he emphasizes that he has not attempted to write a general history of Islamic painting, the “purpose of the book is rather to indicate the place of painting in the culture of the Islamic world,” and it has thus never been superseded by later works of a strictly art historical nature.
Important early works of Arnold were his two books The Preaching of Islam; a History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith (London, 1896, 1913, 1935) and The Caliphate (Oxford, 1924; reprinted. London, 1965). Arnold became the first English editor for the first edition of The Encyclopedia of Islam. He co-edited the first edition of The Legacy of Islam (Oxford, 1931; repr. London, 1952) with A. Guillaume; and with R. A. Nicholson he edited A Volume of Oriental Studies Presented to Edward G. Browne (Cambridge, 1922).
Arnold exposed Indian muslim poet
Muhammad Iqbal to western culture and ideas, and served as a bridge for Iqbal between the ideas of the east and west. He was made Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire in 1912, and in 1921 was given a Knighthood by the Crown and became Sir Thomas Walker Arnold. He married Celia Mary Hickson in 1892. He died on 9 June 1930.

Association with MAO College and Aligarh Movement:

At the age of 23 years, Mr. Arnold completed his education and at the behest of Mr. Theodore Beck, Principle, MAO College, he accepted a position of Professor of Philosphy in MAO College in 1888. He was an orientalist and had great passion for oriental studies. He had special interests in foriegn languages so he learned Sanskrit and frence during his studies and learned persian and arabic at MAO College. Due to his special interest in oriental studies and eastern culture, he was well suited at MAO College and adopted eastern dress code also. He used to dress payjama, angarkha and turban and look like a Maulvi. Due to to this Sir Syed used to address him as Maulana Arnold. Due to his young age, good attitude and soft language, he was very popular among the students. Mr. Arnold, Mr. Theodore Beck and Mr. Theodore Morrision created a very conginioul atmosphere for intellectual interface with external scholars. They used to invite external scholars to have interface, speeches and ellocutions, and the best students performer used to get an award from Mr. Arnold.
Mr. Arnold were a urdu loving person so always promoted Urdu language in the college and presided the first meeting of Anjuman Tarraqi Urdu. For urdu poetry he was a big follower of Sir Syed and used to encourage students to follow Maulana Haali in urdu poetry.
When Sahebzada Aftab Ahmad Khan, started Duty Society, 1889, Prof. Arnold played a very active role and became its founding Keeper/Secretary. Prof. Arnold completed his famous book, Preaching of Islam during his stay at MAO College. In the book “The Spread of Islam in the World: A History of Peaceful Preaching”, Prof. Arnold proved with strong evidence that Islam was never spread with swords, it was always spread by peaceful preaching. Sir Syed was very happy with this great work of Prof. Arnold. The whole Muslim community was grateful for Prof. Arnold for such a noble work.
After 10 years of great service to the MAO College, Prof. Arnold became a well known orientalist and scholar. In 1897, he resigned from MAO College and joined as a Principle at Oriental College, Punjab University Lahore. Even after joining Oriental College Lahore, he was always in touch with MAO College and visited on 26th February, 1904.

Arnold House: The present Proctor’s office & NRSC Provost’s office in AMU Aligarh was the building named after Prof. Thomas Walker Arnold, to recognize his serves to MAO College and Aligarh Movement.

Allama Shibli Nomani & Prof. Thomas W. Arnold

When Allama Shibli returned to India after performing Hajj, he met Sir Syed Ahmed Khan who had just established M.A.O. College. Allama Shibli Nomani was offered and accepted a teaching position at the MAO College in 1892. He met Prof. Thomas Arnold in 1888 when Prof. Arnold joined MAO College staff from whom Allama Shibli learned first hand modern western ideas and thoughts. At the same time Prof. Arnold learned Arabic from Allama Shibli. They traveled together in 1892 to Syria, Egypt, Turkey and other countries of the Middle East and got direct and practical experience of their societies. Allama Shibli’s scholarship influenced Prof. Thomas Arnold on one hand and on the other he was influenced by Thomas Arnold to a great extent, and this explains the modern touch in his ideas.
When Prof. Arnold left MAO College and joined Government College Lahore, Allama Shibli wrote to his cousin brother and disciple Maulana Hamiduddin Farahi (MAO College graduate and later a Professor of Arabic at MAO College); “Arnold left, College is sad about his departure. He was given a warm farewell.”
In 1904, when Prof. Arnold was finally leaving India to join as the staff of the India Office as Assistant Librarian in Britain, he was given addresses at different places including at MAO College. For the said event Allama Shibli again wrote to Maulana Hamiduddin Farahi ; “ Mr. Arnold is leaving for Britain, MAO College Aligarh will give addresses to him, one of the address will be in Persian too. I have been requested to prepare that, but I am not good in Persian so please prepare one and send it to Prof. Abul Hasan, MAO College immidiately.I will prepare the Arabic one. Mr. Arnold will be coming to Aligarh on 26th February, 1904.”

Association with Sir Allama Iqbal:

Allama Iqbal came over to Lahore for his graduate studies. Lahore was then developing as a centre of higher learning. He chose philosophy as his major subject for which he had a particular bent of mind. He was fortunate in studying philosophy under Prof. Thomas Arnold who was no ordinary teacher. An intimate teacher-pupil relationship soon developed between the two to which Allama Iqbal's poem on Arnold, included in the collection of Bang-i Dara, bears evidence. Allama Iqbal's grateful recognition of what he received from Prof. Arnold is also expressed by him in his dedication to him of his book, The Development ot Metaphysics in Persia. It runs as follows: "This little book is the first-fruit of that literary and philosophical training which I have been receiving from you for the last ten years, and as an expression of gratitude I beg to dedicate it to your name. You have always judged me liberally; I hope you will judge these pages in the same spirit."
When Allama Iqbal went to England for higher studies in Western philosophy, he re-established his contact with Prof. Arnold.

Lieutenant Colonel George Farquhar Irving Graham

Lieutenant Colonel George Farquhar Irving Graham

“Until Indian Muslims will remember my father, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, they will also pay a rich tribute to Lieutenant Colonel G.F.I. Graham.”

These are the words of Syed Mahmud, which he said at a dinner party in 1885 to pay a rich tribute to Lieutenant Colonel G.F.I. Graham, his father’s, friend. Charles Alfred Elliott, Auckland Collin and G.F.I. Graham were very close friends of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and have a very long association with Sir Syed and Aligarh Movement.

Lieutenant Colonel G.F.I. Graham was first person to write the biography of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan “The Life and Work of Syed Ahmad Khan” which was published in 1885 from London. In this book Lt.Col. Graham had describe the life sketch of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan from 1863-1884 and had paid a rich tribute to his friend and reformer Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and Aligarh Movement. He had briefly described his interaction and meetings with Sir Syed which took place at different places in an outside of India including England when Sir Syed went England to receive the insignia of C.S.I, on August 6, 1869.

Lt.Col. Graham was posted in Ghazipur (UP) in 1964, when Sir Syed started Scientific Society and held its first convention in Ghazipur. He helped Sir Syed to formulate the by-laws of the Scientific Society. He also helped Sir Syed in writing commentary on The Holy Bible, Tabayyan-ul-Kalam, which was published from Ghazipur in 1865. Lt. Col. Graham praised Sir Syed’s work and courage and emphasized the importance of the book, Tabayyan-ul-Kalam which provides some new information about birth and family of Jesus Christ (Isaa Alaihis Salat-o-Wassalam).

Lt. Col. Graham and his friend Auckland Collin translated “Asbaab Baghawat-e-Hind” in English which was published from Banaras Medical Press in 1873. Col. Graham made regular visits to Aligarh to see Sir Syed and his work. He spends a lot of time with MAO College staff and students eat with students in Dining Hall. He was also one of the attendee of Rasme-Bismillah of Sir Ross Masood, grandson of Sir Syed.

Lt.Col. Graham and his wife Mrs L. J. Graham moved back to England after his retirement. He had four daughters and 2 sons. One of his sons, Major George Humphrey Irving Graham, was in 44th Battalion, Merwara Infantry, Indian Army. Major George Humphrey Irving Graham was commissioned in 1st Battalion, Devonshire Regiment in 1897. He served in the Tirah and South Africa Killed in action on 7 February 1916 at the age of 42 years in Mesopotamia. He was commemorated on The Basra Memorial, Iraq.

Syed Muhammad Ali

Syed Muhammad Ali

Born in 1859
Died in 1925
Grandson of Syed Muhammad (Elder brother of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan)
Son-in-law of Syed Hamid (Eldest son of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan)
Wife’s name: Syed Ahmadi Begum (grand daughter of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan)
Married in February 1888

Personal Secretary of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan

Secretary of M.A.O.College Board of Trustees:

29th October 1918 to 30th November 1920
(Acting Secretary from Jan 1918- October 1918)

Founding Treasurer Aligarh Muslim University:

March 21, 1921 to Jan 22, 1924

Syed Muhammad Ali, grandson of Syed Muhammad (elder brother of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan) was born in 1859. Completed his primary education in Madarsatul-Uloom and graduated from MAO College. In the beginning lived in hostels later moved-in Sir Syed House with Sir Syed’s family and lived there for a long time. After completing his education he joined judicial services and retired in 1918 as Session Judge from Muradabad. He lived his life with discipline, honesty and principles. He was a very famous criminal judge and well known for his unbiased treatments to all of the witnesses irrespective of their skin colors.

Association with Sir Syed & Aligarh Movement
Sir Syed had a great respect and admiration for his elder brother Syed Muhammad and so he took care of his family after his death. Syed Muhammad Ali was grandson of Syed Muhammad so grew up under the able guidance of Sir Syed. Sir Syed enrolled him in Madarsatul-Uloom in June 1875. He completed all of his education in Madarsatul-Uloom & MAO College and mostly lived with Sir Syed in Sir Syed House. In February, 1888 he got married to Ahmadi Begum, daughter of Syed Hamid (eldest son of Sir Syed). Before starting his profession career in judicial services, he worked as Sir Syed’s Personal Secretary. As he grew up under Sir Syed’s mentorship, had a great respect for Sir Syed and close association with him and his movement, The Aligarh Movement.

Nawab Ishaq Khan was Secretary of MAO College Board of Trustees from January, 1913 to 28th October, 1918. During the last days of his tenure, his health was not good so board appointed Syed Muhammad Ali as acting secretary and later when Nawab Ishaq Khan died, board elected Syed Muhammad Ali as Secretary to the MAO College board of trustees. During the beginning of his tenure as Secretary he put a lot of efforts to construct a new building for AMU Schools which was situated next to College in an old Bungalow (present Old Guest House). Condition of school building was not good so he moved the AMU School to Minto Circle Building on 1st April, 1919. He faced tough time due to the Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement in which had a strong presence in MAO College but he never surrendered.

On 9th September, 1920 Syed Muhammad Ali made the following speech in Viceroy Lodge of H.E.H. James Ford;

“I feel proud to mention that I am representing Muslim University Association and MAO College. I am associated with MAO College from its inception on 20th June, 1875 when I joined it as a student and have never imagined that one day I will represent this institution when it is going to become a University. This day will be remembered in the Muslims educational development history as RED LETTER DAY”

This was the day when MAO College became Aligarh Muslim University under the leadership of Syed Muhammad Ali. After government’s notification on 1st December, 1920, MAO College became AMU and Board of trustees ceased to exist and therefore all the positions of Board ceased to exists including Secretary. The same government order also appointed Raja Mahmudabad (Sir Muhammad Ali of Mahmudabad) as first Vice-Chancellor. The founding Vice-Chancellor, Raja Mahmudabad appointed Sir Ziauddin Ahmada founding Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Syed Muhammad Ali as Founding Treasurer of Aligarh Muslim University.

Maulvi Syed Zainul Abideen

Maulvi Syed Zainul Abideen

Father’s Name: Muhammad Hussain
Born on 14th June 1832 in Machli-Shahar Jaunpur (UP)
Died on 27th September 1905 in Aligarh

Maulvi Syed Zainul Abideen was born on 14th June 1832, in Machli-Shahar, Jaunpur in a Syed family of Syed Muhammad Hussain. His mother was a distant relative of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. After completing his primary education in hometown, he joined Sanskrit College Banaras and completed his graduation in Arabic. After graduation, he joined University of Calcutta and completed his Law degree with first division. He joined judicial services and retired as Sub-Judge from Ghazipur (UP).

Association with Sir Syed & Aligarh Movement

At the time when Sir Syed founded Scientific Society in Ghazipur, Maulvi Zainul Abideen was posted in Ghazipur and he whole heatedly supported Sir Syed’s vision and mission. He had a distant relation and a close association with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and on his request moved to Aligarh and bought a house and fenced it with “Khaar-Daar Taar”, and hence remembered as Taar-Walaa Bangla. He donated the Bangla to MAO College in 1897. He supported Sir Syed at all time and specially when Sir Syed was in trouble due to financial mismanagement by College’s treasurer. He was so supportive to Sir Syed that Sir Syed used to announce his contributions for College development even without asking his permission and Maulvi Zainul Abideen never refused to comply Sir Syed’s announcement. Syed Zainul Abideen sold his ancestral properties of Machli-Shahar Jaunpur and part of it donated to College Funds. During the final moments of Sir Syed, he used to spend a lot of his time with Sir Syed.

Maulvi Syed Zainul Abideen died on 27th September 1905 and buried close to Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in University Jama Masjid.

Raja Jai Kishan Das

Raja Jai Kishan Das

Birth: 24th November 1832 (Muradabad- UP)
Died: 30th April, 1905
Father’s Name: Brindaban Das Chaubey

Jai Kishan Das, popularly known as Raja Jai kishan Das was born on 24th November, 1832 in a respected family of Mr. Brindaban Das Chaubey in Muradabad. His father was a respectable and influential figure in Muradabad. Jai Kishan Das completed his formal education in Muradabad and joined Civil Services as a treasurer in Tahseel and retired as a Deputy Collector. For his services to create a harmony between the government and people, he was awarded with Mutiny Medal. In 1860, received the title of RAJA and became Raja Jai Kishan Das. Later received C.S.I. from British Government.

Association with Sir Syed and Aligarh Movement

After reading Sir Syed’s articles in Loyal Mohammadan’s of India, Raja Jai Kishan Das were upset about Sir Syed and his vision but when he first saw him in helping and taking care of Hindus in Muradabad, he became a fan and life long companion of Sir Syed. In 1863, when Sir Syed established The Scientific Society at Ghazipur, Raja Sb praised Sir Syed’s efforts and encouraged others to participate in these efforts. When Sir Syed moved to Aligarh, he relocated the Scientific Society to Aligarh but when he got transferred to Banaras, the Scientific Society elected Raja Jaikishan Das as its Secretary in on 15th August, 1867. Raja Saheb took care of the society with full sincerity and played a key role in its growth and progress. On 21st February 1874, he got transferred to Allahabad. In the farewell function, Sir Syed praised his efforts and sincerity for The Scientific Society and The Society elected Raja Jai Kishan Das as Co-President of The Society for life.

He was also President and Secretary of British Indian Association (Founded by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan). He was always an active participant in Muslim Education Conference (Founded by Sir Syed, in 1886). Raja Jai Kishan Das always played a key role for promotion of education and communal harmony among Hindus and Muslims. He used to visit Aligarh regularly to meet Sir Syed and used to stay with Sir Syed at his residence. On Sir Ross Masood’s (grandson of Sir Syed and son of Justice Syed Mahmood) Bismillah, Raja Saheb gifted 500/- rupees which Sir Syed donated to MAO College Fund and a plaque were installed in Streachy Hall with Raja Jai Kishan Das’s name.

On 30th April 1905, he died and MAO College was remained closed for the day to mourn this great companion of Sir Syed. MAO College and later Aligarh Muslim University is awarding two medals with Raja Jai kishan Das’s name. Later one of the hostel in Sir Sulaiman Hall of AMU was named after Raja Jai Kishan Das.

Deputy Nazir Ahmad

Shamsul Ulema Maulvi Deputy Nazir Ahmad

Father’s Name: Maulvi Sa-adat Ali
Born: 1831 Bijnor (UP)
Died: 28th December 1910 (Delhi)
Hayatun-Nazir by Syed Iftekhar Alam Bilgrami
Maulvi Nazir Ahmad ki Kahani, Kuch Unki Kuch Meri Zabani

by Mirza Farhatullah Beg

Maulvi Nazir Ahmad Dihlavi: Ahvaal-o-Aasar by Siddiqi, Iftikhar Ahmad

Literary Works:
Mara-tul-Uroos (A very famous Novel based on the Tarbiyat of girls)
Banatun-Naash, Taubtun-Nasooh, Ibnul Waqt, Mohsinaat, Aiyyami,

Rooya-e-Sadaqa, Fasana-e-Mubtala

The history of rise and fall of Islamic thoughts in Indian sub-continent and Aligarh Movement can never be completed without mentioning Nazir Ahmad.
Shamsul Ulema Maulvi Nazir Ahmad, popularly known as Deputy Nazir Ahmad was born in district Bijnor in western UP. He had spent his first 4 years of childhood with his father at his maternal grandfather’s place in Afzalgarh, Nageenah, Bijnor. After his maternal grandfather’s death, they moved to Bijnor. Their financial condition was not very good so his father became a private tutor and was Nazir Ahmad’s first teacher. The young Nazir Ahmad was very naughty so his father sent him to Delhi for further education in a small Arabic Madrasah in Aurangabadi Masjid close to Ajmeri Gate under Maulvi Abdul Khaliq. He faced a lot of hardship there and described his stay in this Madrasah as worst part of his life. Later he got married to the grand daughter of Maulana Abdul Khaliq. Later got admission in Delhi College, stayed there from 1845 to 1854 and completed his LLD. After completing his education started his career as a teacher in Punjab, later moved to Kanpur and then moved to Allahabad and became Deputy Inspector of School. In Allahabad he learned English and joined the team of translator who were translating Indian Penal Code from English to Urdu. After this he was appointed as Tahsildar and rose to Collector and worked in Jalone, Gorakhpur and Azamgarh. Deputy Nazir Ahmad was not very happy with the course material of schools so he decided to develop his own for his daughter Sakeenah. His intention was to make the course material interesting and useful. Later his work became very popular among the girls students and his course material resulted in a very famous novel Mara-tul-Uroos, a training guide for girls.

Association with Sir Syed and Aligarh Movement:
In 1877 on Sir Syed’s recommendation Mohsinul Mulk, who was working in Hyderabad state recommended Deputy Nazir Ahmad for Director (Administration) in the state. He was in Hyderabad state for a while and retired from there and moved back to his home in Delhi. He was a very good orator and Sir Syed used to take him to each Muhammadan Education Conference as Keynote Speaker. He was an ardent supporter of Sir Syed and Aligarh Movement and became a close Associate of Sir Syed. He wrote few poems in praise of Sir Syed. He was fully convinced about the role of Tahzeebul-Akhlaq for social and cultural progress of Muslims. Sir Syed had a great influence on his political thought. He traveled a lot with Sir Syed to garner the support for Aligarh Movement.

Like Sir Syed, Nazir Ahmad was a strong believer of Hindu-Muslim Unity. He strongly felt that the history books written by westerners which were taught in the government schools are spreading the communalism. He seriously intendend for Hindu-Muslims to live a life with peace and harmony. He was so serious about his thought that he became the first person to recommend putting forward a request to the department of education to re-write the history books with an emphasis on communal harmony.

He was emotionally very attached with Sir Syed. After Sir Syed’s death he used to refuse to deliver lectures and talks and used to say;

“ Kya Karoo(n) mashgala lecture ka aji ch-hoot gaya
Hum se ek yaar ch-hutaa aisa ke Ji ch-hoot gayaa”

He served the community with his money and pen till his last breath and died on 28th December 1910 in Delhi.

Maulvi Samiullah Khan

Moulvi Samiullah Khan
Born in December, 1834, Delhi
Died on April 7, 1908 at Aligarh
(Buried in the courtyard of Shah Abdul Aziz Mohaddis Dehivi in Delhi)
Founding Secretary: Management Committee of Madarsatul Uloom, 24th May 1875
Founding President: Mohammadan Educational Conference 1886- Aligarh
Son: Hamidullah Khan, First student of Madarsatul Uloom
Teacher's name : Maulvi Mamlook Ali (Sir Syed's Teacher), Mufti Sadruddin

Moulvi Samiullah Khan is one of the earliest supporters of Sir Syed Ahmad. When Sir Syed thought of opening schools for the dissemination of western education he was a co-worker and assisted him in all his educational activities and social reforms. Samiullah Khan and Sir Syed both were unanimous that the acquisition of western education for the Muslims was a pre-condition for an honorable life. He supported Aligarh Movement from its inception. There was no committee at the time without his name.

Samiullah Khan was born in December, 1834 at Delhi in an aristocratic family. He was educated in Arabic and Persian at home and later joined the reputed Aalim of the time Moulvi Mufti Sadruddin Azurda. His family had won a name in Law as his two uncles and one maternal uncle had already joined the judiciary. Following their foot-steps, Samiullah passed the judicial examination in 1856 and was appointed Munsif at Kanpur in 1858. But he resigned from this and took to independent practice. His intelligence and understanding of legal complications soon won him a name. Again in 1872 he joined the judicial department and was appointed sub-judge at Aligarh. He had a perfect command on Mohammadan Law and his judgments when referred to the Privy Council upheld the same with great appreciation. Justice Ameer Ali, in one of his judgments admired his ability to deal with most complicated cases. He was offered the office of the Chief Justice of Hyderabad with many concessions but he refused it because of the state’s uncongenial atmosphere. In 1880 he toured Europe with the object of seeing the educational and industrial development. When he returned to India, Sir Syed had gone to Bombay to receive him. During his Viceroyalty, Lord North Brook (1873-1876) was willing to send a diplomatic mission to Egypt and selected Moulvi Samiullah because of his very proficient knowledge of Arabic and English and because of his being the most trusted man of the administration. This was a very crucial period for the British in West Asia because of the Pan-Islamic movement of Jamaluddin Afghani (1837-1897) but Samiullah did his job so efficiently that the relations of West Asian countries with Britain grew more cordial than ever and for that he was conferred the title of C.M.G. Maulvi Samiullah also helped to establish Muir central college at Allahabad later it became Allahabad University.

Moulvi Samiullah’s contacts with Syed Ahmad started from his teen age and it was under his guidance at Bijnor, that Samiullah prepared for the judicial examination. In 1857 Samiullah was a man who saved his and Sir Syed’s family from the wrath of the English forces and took them to Hazrat Nizamuddin for safety. After the revolt when Sir Syed was planning to persuade his coreligionists to accept English education, Samiullah joined him. In almost every committee, if Sir Syed was the President, Samiullah was the Secretary. When Sir Syed had become the target of attack for his reformatory schemes it was Samiullah Khan, who shielded and cooperated him in the plans. When there was too much opposition of the foundation of a college for western education, it was Samiullah who advised Sir Syed to start a Madrasa and he himself laid its foundation on May 24, 1875 which started teaching after a week with only four students, the first being Hameedullah Khan, the son of Moulvi Samiullah. The inauguration of the School was presided by Maulvi Mohammed Karim, President of Managing Committee. Speeches delivered by Sir Syed, Raja Jai Kishan Das and Maulvi Samiullah.1 June 1875 the boarding house started with seven students on the roll with a budget of Rs. 989 per month. Managing committee constituted Maulvi Samiullah, Chiragh Ali, Syed Mahmood, Raja Jai Kishan Das, Sir Syed, Nawab Ziauddin Khan and Maulana Ahsan Nanotovi was appointed its member. Maulvi Samiulah Khan was appointed secretary of the Managing Committee.
This Madrasa was to serve as a model as to what was wrong with the English teaching and what would be the code and conduct of the proposed Mohammadan College for which the Muslim community was scared. He supervised the construction of the College buildings and whenever Sir Syed was out to collect fund, Samiullah accompanied him. In the construction of Victoria Gate and other adjoining rooms Moulvi Samiullah played a vital role along with Haji Ismail Khan and Sir Syed Ahmad. In the inner portion of the Victoria Gate there is a marble plate in which his services to the College had been inscribed in Arabic for posterity to know what he had done for the College. In 1875 in an Address presented to Sir William Muir, the Governor of N.W.F.P., his services were highly admired and Sir William also, while replying, appreciated his interest and motivation. In the annual report of the College 1877, Sir Syed highly appreciated his interest in the College and candidly expressed that had he not been there, the College would not have attained such a great success so soon. In 1884 when Lord Ripon the Viceroy, (1880-1884) visited MAO College he was impressed to know the zeal with which Samiullah Khan had performed the College work and he thanked him on behalf of the audience.
In the western side of the Strachey Hall, there is a spacious reading room known as ‘Hamidullah Khan Lecture Room’. It was built to perpetuate the memory of Hamidullah Khan, son of Moulvi Samiullah Khan who had returned from London after getting his Bar-at-Law. Moulvi Samiullah chaired the First session of the Mohammedan Educational Conference in 1886 held at Aligarh. This shows his closeness to the Aligarh Movement.
From 1875 to 1889 Moulvi Samiullah whole-heartedly supported Syed Ahmed and the College and Syed owed much to his devotion. But there existed some rudimentary differences between them as well. Syed was pro-British and totally relied on English Staff, while Samiullah and party would disagree to this. Sir Syed and Syed Mahmood’s leniency and soft attitude to the English Staff was an eye sore to Samiullah and party. Sir Syed knew this and felt seriously that after him Samiullah’s party would have hard attitude to them which would not be conducive to the College. Syed yed wanted the continuance of his policy till the College crossed its in far age. With this intention he introduced in 1889 a Trustee Bill in the Trustees Council for its approval to appoint Syed Mahmood the Honorary Secretary of the College after him. The Bill was vehemently opposed by Moulvi Samiullah and many other Trustees but anyhow it was passed. When the Trustee Bill was finally approved, the Maulvi Samiullah and his supporters severed their connections with the College, Their names, however, remained on the list of trustees for some time and Sir Syed continued to ask their advice and opinions on matters concerning the affairs of the Colleges, but since they were completely opposed to the way in which the business was being conducted and never replied to Sir Syed’s requests, he was left with no choice but to remove their names from the list. Later, His Excellency Nawab Sir Viqar-ul-Umara Bahadur Madur-ul-Maham, the Prime Minister of Hyderabad who came to Aligarh to inspect the College, in the interest of the College and of the Muslims as a whole, did his best to intercede in the quarrel between Sir Syed and Maulvi Samiullah. As a result of his efforts, Sir Syed proposed to the annual general meeting of the Trustee Committee the names of the Maulvi Samiullah and his supporters should once more be put on the list. This proposal was willingly adopted by all those who were present, but for a number of reasons, Maulvi Samiullah have not agreed, and his Excellency’s attempts to bring the two men together were all to no avail. This deprived the Aligarh Movement of the support of a very influential man who if continued, would have added more luster and glory to the College.

Moulvi Samiullah had passed away in 1908 at Aligarh but according to his instruction, he was laid to rest at Delhi in the courtyard of Shah Abdul Aziz, Mohaddis Dehivi

Source : Hayat-e-Javed by Maulana Altaf Hussain Haali
Aligarh Movement by Prof. Shan Mohammad.

Justice Syed Mahmud

Justice Syed Mahmud
Father’s Name: Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
Mother’s Name: Parsa Begum
Date of birth: May 24, 1850 Delhi
Died: May 8, 1903 in Sitapur
Buried in AMU Jama Masjid
Hony. Jt. Secretary MAO College Board : 1887-1898
Secretary MAO College Board : 1898-98
President MAO College Board of Trutees: 1898-1903

Books: A History of English Education in India
Law of Evidence in British India
Mohammadan Law Book (Arabic)

Justice Syed Mahmud, among the first Indians to study at Cambridge University, a British barrister and High Court Judge in India, played a major role in the formulation of "Anglo-Muhammadan Law," the synthesis of Islamic and British jurisprudence that remains influential in much of the Muslim world.
Syed Mahmud was the second son of Sir Syed Ahmad, the first being Syed Hamid. He was born at Delhi on May 24, 1850 and was taught at home. Persian was his favourite subject and later he founded a Persian Society at the MAO College. He accompanied Syed Ahmad wherever he was transferred and got his schooling in Moradabad and Ghazipur schools founded by his father. Finally he joined the Queen’s College Benaras.
In 1869 he was awarded a Government scholarship for higher studies in England. At that time Syed was also willing to visit England to study the English educational pattern and to write Khutbat-e-Ahmadiya, a reply to Sir William Muir’s misleading book ‘The life of Mohamet’. Both father and son sai1ed by the same ship and had to jointly study things relevant to the development of Muslim community. He was admitted to the Christ College, Cambridge and secured the first rank in English literature. In 1872 he got the degree of Bar-at-Law and was called to the Bar at Lincoln’s Inn.
Contrary to the culture of sycophancy and genuflecting before the colonial English authority promoted by the British and freely adopted by the Indians at that time, both Syed Ahmad Khan and his high-profile and brilliant son Syed Mahmud strived to conduct themselves as if they were equal to the English. Syed Ahmad Khan hosted a dinner at Banaras in 1872 to honour Syed Mahmud when he returned from England after having been called to the bar at Lincoln’s Inn. Alexander Shakespeare, Commissioner of Banaras, presided. While responding to Shakespeare’s toast, Syed Mahmud spoke of his wish to unite England and India socially even more than politically. The English rule in India, in order to be good, must promise to be eternal; and it can never do so until the English people are known to us as friends and fellow subjects, than as rulers and conquerors. The Pioneer, where report of this dinner was published, doesn’t record the alarm that Shakespeare and other Englishmen present must have felt at this. But Syed Mahmud had made his point. And he made it again when, on becoming a High Court Judge at Allahabad (1882) at the young age of 32, he submitted a Memorial to Government to the effect that since he was English except in name and parentage, he should be treated on par with British judges. (Syed Mahmud’s English contemporaries said that his mastery of English idiom was of an incredible precision.)

Law Career:
As a young lawyer, he worked under the supervision of Moulvi Samiullah, a close associate of Sir Syed who was then living at Allahabad. His legal acumen was appreciated by Sir Salar Jung I of Hyderabad who called him on a monthly salary of Rs.2000/- (Two Thousand) for editing the laws and reform the judicial administration. In 1879 he was appointed a District Judge at Rae Bareli and took some controversial decisions which won admiration from the higher judicial authorities His interpretation of law in Deputy Commissioner v. Raja Ram Pal Singh was so decisive that the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council upheld his opinion (in the Privy Council appeal No.3 1882) and in view of his profound erudition recommended the Governor-General for his promotion to the higher rank to which he deserved. Consequently Syed Mahmud was elevated to the Allahabad High Court in 1882 at the age of 32. He was the first Indian Judge of the Allahabad High Court.

He had a perfect command over the Laws and differed in the interpretation of his fellow English judges and thus incurred their displeasure and resigned in 1893 because of differences between him and the Chief Justice. He was a great authority on Hindu and Muslim Laws and me of his pronouncements are still regarded as classics.

Role in Aligarh Movement:
From the outset of the movement Syed Mahmud was the chief advisor of his father in all his schemes of education and national-building activities. They were unanimous in their opinion that the western education was the immediate necessity for the Muslims and when they proceeded to England and stayed there together, there was practically no moment when they had not discussed the crucial question of the foundation of a university for the Muslims in India. Syed Ahmad knew little English and all his correspondence was taken by Syed Mahmud. Since he had taken the appointment in judiciary he had very meager time to stay with his father who always regretted his absence from Aligarh.
Syed Mahmud drafted and published in England the first appeal to the Indian Muslims for modern education. He drafted the constitution Khwast-garan-e-Taraqqi-e-Talim-e Musalmanan which was to assess the attitude of the Muslims towards English education. Syed Mahmud also prepared a questionnaire to responsible Muslims to know their opinions on the causes of Muslim backwardness and also to suggest remedy.
While Syed Mahmud was, still in England brisk correspondence was taking place between him and Syed regarding the formation of the College Fund Committee and he was made a member of it. Before leaving England, he was the man who drew the whole scheme of education for the Indian Muslims. He had even sketched the structure of the building like Strachey Hall and Sir Syed Hall for the proposed College. He wanted, like Syed, a University free from the Government control, a perfect residential system, in which the students of both the communities lived together adhering to their faiths. Though Syed Mahmud while High Court judge lived at Allahabad yet he looked after the appointment of teachers, academic standards, Finance and official correspondence and it surprises one as to how he spared time along with his lofty judicial position to look into all this. Syed’ s every dream regarding Muslim uplift was given a practical shape by Syed Mahmud and how much the Aligarh Movement owes to his untiring efforts is very difficult of assess.

Syed Mahmud was obliged to resign his judgeship (1893). Syed Ahmad Khan issued a long statement to an Urdu newspaper on that occasion, asserting that the main reason why Syed Mahmud couldn’t continue in the service was that the English rob their Indian civil servants of their “self-respect”. The circumstances that forced Justice Mahmud to seek premature retirement from the Judgeship of the Allahabad High Court, have for long remained the subject of speculation. Some have characterised these circumstances as "sad",1 without explaining as to why they regard them so; others have attributed Justice Mahmud's resignation to his differen­ces with Chief Justice Sir John Edge, without explaining the nature of these differences.

After his retirement in 1893 he devoted solely to the development of Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College, Aligarh. He taught English literature in the College and always thought of better relations between the teachers and students. He was a very active member of the Mohammadan Educational Conference and assisted his father in programming the sessions of the Conference. Syed Ahmad eulogizing his services confessed that ‘had he (Syed Mahmud) not helped me, my visit to England have been a failure’. There was no man who knew plans of Syed Ahmad more accurately than Syed Mahmud who was a true replica of his father

Syed Ahmad was always pensive as to what would be of the College when he was no more. But he was always contended when he looked to Syed Mahmud who knew his every plan and had the capacity to implement them. Sir Syed had great confidence in Syed Mahmud and he wished him to be his successor. That is why he got him appointed as Honorary Joint Secretary of the MAO College in 1887. He wanted that his policies regarding the College be continued and for that there was no better successor than his son. Therefore under the Trustees Regulation, Syed Ahmad got Syed Mahmud nominated in 1889 as the life Honorary Secretary after his death. But some senior colleagues of Syed Ahmad did not like this and his nomination was opposed. Syed Mahmud’s leniency towards the European Staff was the main issue in his opposition. When Syed Ahmad died on March 27, 1898, Syed Mahmud held the office of the Honorary Secretary of the College. Later after much persuasion, he accepted the Presidentship of Trustees which empowered him only to preside over the meetings of the Trustees.

In 1895 he wrote a book “A History of English Education in India”, which gives lengthy quotations from government documents and statistical data.

By 1896, his health deteriorated and he died in 1903 at Sitapur. The dead body was brought to Aligarh and he was laid to rest beside his father in the courtyard of the Jama Masjid of the University. Thus there lies buried a man who from his young age thought of a University, lived with it and died for it.